Ivan Pavlov

It originated in the historical development of man under the influence of labor. "At first, labor – Engels wrote, – and then with him articulate speech were the two most important stimuli under the influence of which the brain gradually evolved apes in the human brain … "With the emergence and development of speech originated and evolved human capacity for abstraction and generalization. "Every word (speech) is generalization ", – wrote Lenin. The word 'tree' summarizes all trees, regardless of the specific differences in their essential characteristics. The word "person" summarizes all people, regardless of their nationality, sex, age, etc.

As we have seen from the experience with Raphael, is a distraction and a generalization is not available, even the higher animals. Raphael could not establish the general concepts (in particular, the concept of "water"), and his actions were often absurd character. The emergence and development of speech, and with it, and abstract thinking have enabled mankind to create a science. It helps a person to actively influence the nature, adapting it to their needs. All our knowledge is nothing as a result of the formation of bonds in the second signaling system based on speech. However, be aware that the ability of some animals mimic human speech does not prove that they have a second signal system. For example, parrots, starlings, rooks may reproduce individual words and even whole sentences.

Particularly well to imitate human speech parrots. Sometimes it may seem that their speech is quite makes sense. But it is worth only somewhat change the situation, as the senselessness of their "speaking" becomes apparent. The second signal system, peculiar to man – the ability not only to speech but also to the meaningful use of words – in fact people has a way of thinking. Arising out of the first system, she is with her in constant interaction and subject to the same general laws, because it is the work of the same nervous system, in the words of Ivan Pavlov. But, despite the commonality of these laws, according to Pavlov, a normal person the second signal system always dominates the first. The degree of dominance in humans is different. This gave grounds for the great physiologist to divide mankind into three types of higher nervous activity: thinking, artistic and sredniy.K first type includes people with a significant predominance of the second system, so they tend to constant distraction from reality, to the widespread use of general concepts. The immediate impact of not giving them enough of vivid impressions. Conversely, people who belong to the artistic type, a lively and bright perceive reality with its specific stimuli. The second signal system prevails over their first in a lesser degree than people thinking type. Medium type is intermediate between both these types. Thus, in addition to common types of nervous system inherent in animals, man has inherent and specific for a type of higher nervous activity. They are the result of historical development man.

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